Heat exchangers are components for transferring thermal energy between two material streams, the media not flowing through each other. Application-specific, both media can be gaseous (use of exhaust gas, charge air coolers for combustion engines) or liquid (storage tanks, district heating networks). A combination of gaseous and liquid media is also possible, for example in gastotherms and in direct charge air cooling. Furthermore, phase transitions may occur depending on the application. Functionally, the heat transfer is conducted through parallel, heat-impermeable heat plates, spirals, U-tubes, jacket tubes or tube bundles through which both substances are passed. The direction is decisive for the efficiency: countercurrent, direct current and cross current are possible design variants, cross cross currents are also possible. Heat exchangers, also referred to synonymously as heat exchangers or heat exchangers, are versatile in industry and automotive engineering. Cooling water coolers, oil coolers, charge air coolers are typical vehicle components.